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Occurrence of active and inactive herbicide ingredients at selected sites in Iowa

Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

By:
, , ,
DOI: 10.1007/BF00482591

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of herbicide active and inactive ingredients (primarily volatile organic compounds) at four selected sites in Iowa representing drain tiles, observation wells, or lysimeters. Water samples were collected monthly and bi-monthly before and after herbicide applications in 1991, respectively. They were analyzed for seven herbicides and 32 volatile organic compounds using methods recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Commercially available herbicide formulations also were obtained and analyzed for volatile organic compounds. Herbicides were detected in 50% of water samples, ranging from 78% of water samples from the Ames site to 25% from the Walnut Creek site. Among herbicides detected, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were atrazine > alachlor > cyanazine > metolachlor > metribuzin. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 11% of water samples. Among the compounds detected, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were xylene > toluene > acetone. One sample contained a detectable amount of aliphatic compound(s), with the empirical formula of C8H18. Results from the Deer Creek site showed that herbicides were detected primarily in the top layer (1.2 m), whereas xylene and other alkylbenzenes were detected at 2.1 m or deeper. Apparently, physico-chemical and other factors are separating herbicides and volatile organic compounds in the shallow unsaturated zone.The occurrence of herbicide active and inactive ingredients (chiefly volatile organic compounds) at four selected sites in Iowa representing drain tiles, observation wells, or lysimeters, was investigated. Herbicides were detected in half of the water samples, within a frequency range of 25-78%. Among herbicides detected, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were atrazine > alachlor > cyanazine > metolachlor > metribuzin. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 11% of water samples. Among the compounds detected, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were xylene > toluene > acetone. One sample contained a detectable amount of aliphatic compound(s), with the empirical formula of C8H18. Results indicate that physico-chemical and other factors are separating herbicides and volatile organic compounds in the shallow unsaturated zone.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Occurrence of active and inactive herbicide ingredients at selected sites in Iowa
Series title:
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
DOI:
10.1007/BF00482591
Volume
83
Issue:
1-2
Year Published:
1995
Language:
English
Publisher:
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Publisher location:
Dordrecht, Netherlands
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
First page:
21
Last page:
35
Number of Pages:
15