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US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

Environmental Geology

By:
,
DOI: 10.1007/BF00776028

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Abstract

Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of 226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in 226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as 226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can 226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes
Series title:
Environmental Geology
DOI:
10.1007/BF00776028
Volume
26
Issue:
1
Year Published:
1995
Language:
English
Publisher location:
Springer-Verlag
Description:
13 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
First page:
19
Last page:
31
Number of Pages:
13