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Revision of Hopewellian trading patterns in Midwestern North America based on mineralogical sourcing

Geoarchaeology - An International Journal

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Abstract

Traditional exchange models purport that all Hopewell-style platform pipes of flint clay were quarried and crafted in southern Ohio by Native Americans from a local kaolinitic flint clay, and that those found in the Havana Hopewell region of western Illinois were transported from southern Ohio along an Ohio River trade network. However, the results of this study show that berthierine-rich flint clay from northwestern Illinois was the only source for pipestone artifacts of the Havana Hopewell region. We base this on (1) X-ray diffraction analysis of quickly made smears, (2) spatiotemporal distribution of artifacts in the Sterling-Rock Falls, Illinois area, and (3) petrographic, X-ray fluorescence, Mo??ssbauer, and SEM/EDX analyses. This understanding of the source of this material made it possible to visually identify the source of large numbers of curated artifacts as having been made of material from the Sterling-Rock Falls area. This discovery has implications for understanding cultural and material exchange among Hopewellian societies. Also, it is the first report of berthierine flint clay and of flint clay that formed before the evolution of terrestrial plants. ?? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Revision of Hopewellian trading patterns in Midwestern North America based on mineralogical sourcing
Series title:
Geoarchaeology - An International Journal
Volume
13
Issue:
7
Year Published:
1998
Language:
English
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Geoarchaeology - An International Journal
First page:
709
Last page:
729
Number of Pages:
21