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Maps of surface displacement following the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake, generated by interferometric processing of ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, reveal effects of various postseismic deformation processes along the 1992 surface rupture. The large-scale pattern of the postseismic displacement field includes large lobes, mostly visible on the west side of the fault, comparable in shape with the lobes observed in the coseismic displacement field. This pattern and the steep displacement gradient observed near the Emerson-Camp Rock fault cannot be simply explained by afterslip on deep sections of the 1992 rupture. Models show that horizontal slip occurring on a buried dislocation in a Poisson's material produces a characteristic quadripole pattern in the surface displacement field with several centimeters of vertical motion at distances of 10-20 km from the fault, yet this pattern is not observed in the postseismic interferograms. As previously proposed to explain local strain in the fault step overs [Peltzer et al., 1996b], we argue that poroelastic rebound caused by pore fluid flow may also occur over greater distances from the fault, compensating the vertical ground shift produced by fault afterslip. Such a rebound is explained by the gradual change of the crustal rocks' Poisson's ratio value from undrained (coseismic) to drained (postseismic) conditions as pore pressure gradients produced by the earthquake dissipate. Using the Poisson's ratio values of 0.27 and 0.31 for the drained and undrained crustal rocks, respectively, elastic dislocation models show that the combined contributions of afterslip on deep sections of the fault and poroelastic rebound can account for the range change observed in the SAR data and the horizontal displacement measured at Global Positioning System (GPS) sites along a 60-km-long transect across the Emerson fault [Savage and Svarc, 1997]. Using a detailed surface slip distribution on the Homestead Valley, Kickapoo, and Johnson Valley faults, we modeled the poroelastic rebound in the Homestead Valley pull apart. A Poisson's ratio value of 0.35 for the undrained gouge rocks in the fault zone is required to account for the observed surface uplift in the 3.5 years following the earthquake. This large value implies a seismic velocity ratio Vp/Vs of 2.1, consistent with the observed low Vs values of fault zone guided waves at shallow depth [Li et al., 1997]. The SAR data also reveal postseismic creep along shallow patches of the Eureka Peak and Burnt Mountain faults with a characteristic decay time of 0.8 years. Coseismic, dilatant hardening (locking process) followed by post-seismic, pore pressure controlled fault creep provide a plausible mechanism to account for the decay time of the observed slip rate along this section of the fault. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.
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Poroelastic rebound along the Landers 1992 earthquake surface rupture