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Petrophysics of low-permeability medina sandstone, northwestern Pennsylvania, Appalachian Basin

Log Analyst

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Abstract

Petrophysical core testing combined with geophysical log analysis of low-permeability, Lower Silurian sandstones of the Appalachian basin provides guidelines and equations for predicting gas producibility. Permeability values are predictable from the borehole logs by applying empirically derived equations based on correlation between in-situ porosity and in-situ effective gas permeability. An Archie-form equation provides reasonable accuracy of log-derived water saturations because of saturated brine salinities and low clay content in the sands. Although measured porosity and permeability average less than 6% and 0.1 mD, infrequent values as high as 18% and 1,048 mD occur. Values of effective gas permeability at irreducible water saturation (Swi) range from 60% to 99% of routine values for the highest permeability rocks to several orders of magnitude less for the lowest permeability rocks. Sandstones having porosity greater than 6% and effective gas permeability greater than 0.01 mD exhibit Swi less than 20%. With decreasing porosity, Swi sharply increases to values near 40% at 3 porosity%. Analysis of cumulative storage and flow capacity indicates zones with porosity greater than 6% generally contain over 90% of flow capacity and hold a major portion of storage capacity. For rocks with Swi < 20%, gas relative permeabilities exceed 45%. Gas relative permeability and hydrocarbon volume decrease rapidly with increasing Swi as porosity drops below 6%. At Swi above 40%, gas relative permeabilities are less than approximately 10%.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Petrophysics of low-permeability medina sandstone, northwestern Pennsylvania, Appalachian Basin
Series title:
Log Analyst
Volume
39
Issue:
4
Year Published:
1998
Language:
English
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
First page:
36
Last page:
45
Number of Pages:
10