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The Poouli (Melamprosops phaeosoma) is an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper found only on Maui, Hawaii. It was rare at the time of its discovery in 1973, but by 1997 was on the brink of extinction with fewer than six individuals left. Two specimens were collected for the description of the species, but both proved to be immature by comparison with a pair of adults at a nest. Until 1997 no Poouli had ever been captured alive, and consequently descriptions of adult Poouli were produced from field observations. In 1997, I captured an adult male Poouli which is described here for the first time. Detailed comparisons of the plumage of this adult with that of an immature specimen and previous descriptions of the species are discussed in this paper, as are differences in plumage between adult and immature males and females that may aid the sexing and ageing of birds in the field.