Miarolitic granitic pegmatites in the Stak valley in the northeast part of the Nanga Parbat - Haramosh Massif, in northern Pakistan, locally contain economic quantities of bi- and tricolored tourmaline. The pegmatites form flat-lying sills that range from less than 1 m to more than 3 m thick and show symmetrical internal zonation. A narrow outer or border zone of medium-to coarse-grained oligoclase - K-feldspar - quartz grades inward to a very coarse-grained wall zone characterized by K-feldspar - oligoclase - quartz - schorl tourmaline. Radiating sprays of schorl and flaring megacrysts of K-feldspar (intermediate microcline) point inward, indicating progressive crystallization toward the core. The core zone consists of variable mixtures of blocky K-feldspar (intermediate microcline), oligoclase, quartz, and sparse schorl or elbaite, with local bodies of sodic aplite and miarolitic cavities or "pockets". Minor spessartine-almandine garnet and lo??llingite are disseminated throughout the pegmatite, but were not observed in the pockets. The pockets contain well-formed crystals of albite, quartz, K-feldspar (maximum microcline ?? orthoclase overgrowths), schorl-elbaite tourmaline, muscovite or lepidolite, topaz, and small amounts of other minerals. Elbaite is color-zoned from core to rim: green (Fe2+- and Mn2+-bearing), colorless (Mn2+-bearing), and light pink (trace Mn3+). Within ???10 cm of the pegmatites, the granitic gneiss wallrock is bleached owing to conversion of biotite to muscovite, with local quartz and albite added. Schorl is disseminated through the altered gneiss, and veins of schorl with bleached selvages locally traverse the wallrock up to 1 m from the pegmatite contact. The schorl veins can be traced into the outer part of the wall zone, which suggests that they formed from aqueous fluids derived during early saturation of the pegmatite-forming leucogranitic magma rich in H2O, F, B, and Li. Progressive crystallization resulted in a late-stage sodic magma and abundant aqueous fluids. Two late stages of volatile escape are recognized: the first stage caused pressure-quenching of the last magma, which produced aplite and caused albitization (An3 to An8) of earlier crystallized K-feldspar and oligoclase. The second stage, released during the rupture of miarolitic cavities, produced platy albite ("cleavelandite," An1) locally associated with F-rich moscovite and elbaite. Albitization is likely due to cooling of alkali-fluoride-dominated fluids at less than 2 kbar pressure. The pegmatites are derived from Himalayan leucogranitic magma emplaced prior to 5 Ma into granulitic gneiss that was at 300?? to 550??C and 1.5 to 2 kbar. The pegmatites were emplaced during uplift of the Haramosh Massif, since they cross-cut ductile normal faults but are cut by brittle normal faults. Economically important pink tourmaline mineralization formed in pockets concentrated near the crest of a broad antiform, as a result of trapping of late magmatic aqueous fluids that had become Fe-poor owing to the prior crystallization of schorl.
Additional Publication Details
Geological setting and petrogenesis of symmetrically zoned, miarolitic granitic pegmatites at Stak Nala, Nanga Parbat - Haramosh Massif, northern Pakistan