thumbnail

Temporal trends of bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry (1977-1997) in a small forested area, Krusne hory, northern Bohemia, Czech Republic

Hydrological Processes

By:
, , , and
DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(19991215)13:17<2721::AID-HYP844>3.0.CO;2-4

Links

Abstract

The Krusne hory (Erzgebirge or Ore Mountains) has been heavily affected by high atmospheric pollutant deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion in an adjacent Tertiary coal basin. Long-term routine sampling of bulk precipitation (1977-1996) and stream water (1977-1998) in a forested area on the south-eastern slope of the mountains were used to evaluate trends and patterns in solute concentration and flux with respect to controlling processes. From 1977 to 1996, the annual volume-weighted Ca2+ and SO42- concentrations decreased in bulk precipitation. However, after 1989, when a pronounced and continuous decrease occurred in coal production, annual volume-weighted concentrations decreased for most solutes, except H+. The concentration decreases were marked, with 1996 levels at or below 50% of those in 1989. The lack of a trend in H+ is attributed to similar decreases in both acid anions and neutralizing base cations. Stream water concentrations of most solutes, i.e. H+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42- and NO3-, were highest at the onset of sampling in 1977, decreased markedly from 1977 to 1983 and decreased more gradually from 1983 to 1998. The spruce forest die-back and removal reduced dry deposition of these solutes by reducing the filtering action, which was provided by the forest canopy. A notable decrease in stream water Ca2+ concentrations occurred after 1995 and may be due to the depletion of Ca2+, which was provided by catchment liming in 1986, 1988 and 1989. Solute flux trends in bulk atmospheric deposition and stream water generally were not significant and the lack of trend is attributed to the large interannual variability in precipitation quantity and runoff, respectively. All solutes except Na+ varied seasonally. The average seasonal concentrations varied between the solutes, but for most solutes were highest in winter and spring and lowest in summer, correlating with the seasonal trend and runoff. For Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42-, the concentration minimum occurs in September and the maximum occurs in February or March, correlating with the seasonal baseflow. These solutes are primarily controlled by the contribution of soil water and groundwater to stream flow. During snowmelt, the meltwater generally causes concentrations to decrease as soil water and groundwater are diluted. For NO3, average minimum concentrations occur in August at the end of the growing season concurrent with the lowest stream flow, and the maximum occurs in February and March with high stream flow during snowmelt. Seasonal stream water NO3- concentration variations are large compared with the long-term decrease.The Krusne hory (Erzgebirge or Ore Mountains) has been heavily affected by high atmospheric pollutant deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion in an adjacent Tertiary coal basin. Long-term routine sampling of bulk precipitation (1977-1996) and stream water (1977-1998) in a forested area on the south-eastern slope of the mountains were used to evaluate trends and patterns in solute concentration and flux with respect to controlling processes. From 1977 to 1996, the annual volume-weighted Ca2+ and SO42- concentrations decreased in bulk precipitation. However, after 1989, when a pronounced and continuous decrease occurred in coal production, annual volume-weighted concentrations decreased for most solutes, except H+. The concentration decreases were marked, with 1996 levels at or below 50% of those in 1989. The lack of a trend in H+ is attributed to similar decreases in both acid anions and neutralizing base cations. Stream water concentrations of most solutes, i.e. H+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42- and NO3-, were highest at the onset of sampling in 1977, decreased markedly from 1977 to 1983 and decreased more gradually from 1983 to 1998. The spruce forest die-back and removal reduced dry deposition of these solutes by reducing the filtering action, which was provided by the forest canopy. A notable decrease in stream water Ca2+ concentrations occurred after 1995 an

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Temporal trends of bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry (1977-1997) in a small forested area, Krusne hory, northern Bohemia, Czech Republic
Series title:
Hydrological Processes
DOI:
10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(19991215)13:17<2721::AID-HYP844>3.0.CO;2-4
Volume
13
Issue:
17
Year Published:
1999
Language:
English
Publisher:
John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Publisher location:
Chichester, United Kingdom
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Hydrological Processes
First page:
2721
Last page:
2741
Number of Pages:
21