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Sources of crustal deformation associated with the Krafla, Iceland, eruption of September 1984

Geophysical Research Letters

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Abstract

A decade-long plate-boundary rifting episode in northern Iceland ended with the September 1984 fissure eruption of Krafla volcano. We apply a nonlinear inversion method to geodetic data collected before and after the eruption to infer the location, geometry, and strngths of deformation sources associated with the eruption. The net outflow of magma from a 3-km-deep magma chamber beneath the Krafa caldera was 30-120 ?? 106 m3. A similar volume of magma, 50-70 ?? 106 m3, was emplaced in a l-meter-wide, ~9-km-long dike extending from the surface to ~7 km depth. Furthermore, at least 110 ?? 106 m3 of magma erupted. Accordingly, a surplus of magma must have been expelled from a second reservoir, the location of which, although uncertain, is likely to lie at depths greater than ~5 km beneath Krafla volcano. It would be difficult to detect this deeper source because of the narrow aperture of the geodetic networks.A decade-long plate-boundary rifting episode in northern Iceland ended with the September 1984 fissure eruption of Krafla volcano. We apply a nonlinear inversion method to geodetic data collected before and after the eruption to infer the location, geometry, and strengths of deformation sources associated with the eruption. The net outflow of magma from a 3-km-deep magma chamber beneath the Krafla caldera was 30-120??106 m3. A similar volume of magma, 50-70??106 m3, was emplaced in a 1-meter-wide, approximately 9-km-long dike extending from the surface to approximately 7 km depth. Furthermore, at least 110??106 m3 of magma erupted. Accordingly, a surplus of magma must have been expelled from a second reservoir, the location of which, although uncertain, is likely to lie at depths greater than approximately 5 km beneath Krafla volcano. It would be difficult to detect this deeper source because of the narrow aperture of the geodetic networks.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Sources of crustal deformation associated with the Krafla, Iceland, eruption of September 1984
Series title:
Geophysical Research Letters
Volume
25
Issue:
7
Year Published:
1998
Language:
English
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Publisher location:
Washington, DC, United States
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
First page:
1043
Last page:
1046
Number of Pages:
4