Three chemically distinct populations of Cl-bearing amphibole have been recognized in association with contact Ni-Cu ore deposits in Footwall Breccia at the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario. The first population, defined as halogen-poor (<0.5 wt.% Cl) actinolite and magnesiohornblende, occurs predominantly as pale green grains and cores. These are generally overgrown by amphibole of the other two populations: a) Fe-rich, halogen-poor deep green rim of ferro-actinolite to ferrohornblende, and b) Fe-rich, Cl-rich (up to 4 wt.% Cl) ferrotschermakite to hastingsite to potassic-chlorohastingsite, which exhibits a characteristic deep blue-green pleochroism. Rare F-rich (up to 1.1 wt.% F) magnesiohornblende also is observed in the same environment. Major-element data for the Cl-rich amphiboles indicate linear, positive relationships for both Mg and K versus Cl, and a logarithmic, positive one for ()Al versus Cl. These data, along with selected X-ray maps, indicate that Cl is homogeneously distributed and likely structurally bound. Calculated Fe3+/Fe2+ values suggest crystallization under conditions of relatively low f(O2). At least two chemically distinct fluids seem to have been responsible for crystallization of the amphiboles. The first, which resulted in the crystallization of halogen-poor, pale green actinolite and magnesiohornblende, was likely relatively hot (???650??C) and contemporaneous with sulfide emplacement. This was followed by a lower-T (???350??C), Cl-rich fluid from which the Cl-rich amphiboles crystallized. This latter fluid may have been a modified product of the initial fluid or possibly a second discrete fluid. A subsequent F-rich fluid led to development of F-rich magnesiohornblende. The source of both Cl and F is not clear; whole-rock analyses of Footwall rocks of the Levack Gneiss Complex, however, reveal anomalous enrichments in both Cl (>700 ppm) and F (2500 ppm). These rocks thus may have been a significant contributor to the fluids.
Additional Publication Details
Chlorine-bearing amphiboles from the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: Description and crystal chemistry