High-resolution velocity models (0.5 km resolution) of the Kilauea caldera region are obtained by the tomographic inversion of both P- and S-waye arrival times. Data are from the permanent Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) seismic network, a broadband seismic network, and a temporary array of stations centered on the southern boundary of the caldera. A low-velocity P-wave anomaly is imaged centered on the southeastern edge of the caldera, with a velocity contrast of about 10% and a volume of 27 km3. The VP/VS model mimics the spatial extent of the P-wave anomaly, but is partitioned into two discrete anomalous volumes centered on the southern boundary of the caldera and on the upper east rift of the volcano. The corresponding Poisson's ratio in these zones is high (?? = 0.25-0.32) which is consistent with a densely-cracked, hot volume which may contain partial melt. The large-scale features of the models are consistent with results obtained from an earlier, larger-scale (2 km resolution) tomographic image of Kilauea Volcano based on HVO network data.
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Three-dimensional velocity structure of the Kilauea caldera, Hawaii