The main borehole of the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) extends over 9000 m into a crystalline upper crust consisting primarily of interlayered gneiss and metabasite. We present a joint analysis of the velocity and lithology logs in an effort to extract the lithology component of the velocity log. Covariance analysis of lithology log, approximated as a binary series, indicates that it may originate from the superposition of two Brownian stochastic processes (fractal dimension 1.5) with characteristic scales of ???2800 m and ???150 m, respectively. Covariance analysis of the velocity fluctuations provides evidence for the superposition of four stochastic process with distinct characteristic scales. The largest two scales are identical to those derived from the lithology, confirming that these scales of velocity heterogeneity are caused by lithology variations. The third characteristic scale, ???20 m, also a Brownian process, is probably related to fracturing based on correlation with the resistivity log. The superposition of these three Brownian processes closely mimics the commonly observed 1/k decay (fractal dimension 2.0) of the velocity power spectrum. The smallest scale process (characteristic scale ???1.7 m) requires a low fractal dimension, ???1.0, and accounts for ???60% of the total rms velocity variation. A comparison of successive logs from 6900-7140 m depth indicates that such variations are not repeatable and thus probably do not represent true velocity variations in the crust. The results of this study resolve disparity between the differing published estimates of seismic heterogeneity based on the KTB sonic logs, and bridge the gap between estimates of crustal heterogeneity from geologic maps and borehole logs. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.
Additional Publication Details
Nature and origin of upper crustal seismic velocity fluctuations and associated scaling properties: Combined stochastic analyses of KTB velocity and lithology logs