Coral reefs are threatened worldwide by stresses ranging from local to global in extent. One of the major challenges in studies of reef decline is understanding how to distinguish between changes resulting from natural, anthropogenic, local, and global environmental perturbations. As such, a conceptual risk-assessment model is developed that includes tiers for natural stresses, global/regional stresses, and local anthropogenic stresses.
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Testing a multi-tiered stress-gradient model for risk assessment using sediment constituents from coral reef environments