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A one-dimensional (vertical) numerical model of currents, mixing, frazil ice concentration, and suspended sediment concentration has been developed and applied in the shallow southeastern Kara Sea. The objective of the calculations is to determine whether conditions suitable for turbid ice formation can occur during times of rapid cooling and wind- and wave-induced sediment resuspension. Although the model uses a simplistic approach to ice particles and neglects ice-sediment interactions, the results for low-stratification, shallow (???20-m) freeze-up conditions indicate that the coconcentrations of frazil ice and suspended sediment in the water column are similar to observed concentrations of sediment in turbid ice. This suggests that wave-induced sediment resuspension is a viable mechanism for turbid ice formation, and enrichment mechanisms proposed to explain the high concentrations of sediment in turbid ice relative to sediment concentrations in underlying water may not be necessary in energetic conditions. However, salinity stratification found near the Ob' and Yenisey Rivers damps mixing between ice-laden surface water and sediment-laden bottom water and probably limits incorporation of resuspended sediment into turbid ice until prolonged or repeated wind events mix away the stratification. Sensitivity analyses indicate that shallow (???20 m), unstratified waters with fine bottom sediment (settling speeds of ???1 mm s-1 or less) and long open water fetches (>25 km) are ideal conditions for resuspension.
Additional Publication Details
Numerical model of frazil ice and suspended sediment concentrations and formation of sediment laden ice in the Kara Sea