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In previously reported work (Wright and others, 2000) we found that the very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system produced data from which high resolution images of a buried former foundry site at the Denver Federal Center were made. The soil covering the site is about 30 mS/m conductivity, and is thus relatively unfavorable for ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging. We have surveyed portions of this site again with new electric field dipole antennas and a new receiver designed for these antennas. Comparisons of the images produced using the loop antennas to those produced using the electric field dipole antennas illustrate that for this application the loop antennas produced more useful images. The larger man-made structures can be seen more clearly because they are not masked by dispersion and/or smaller scale variations as with the electric field dipole antennas. The VETEM system now contains an array of antennas with appropriate transmitters and receivers and can be operated as a low frequency time domain GPR or as a high frequency time domain electromagnetic (EM) system with several possible antenna spacings and polarizations. We plan to examine additional configurations. Numerical modeling of the perpendicular loop antenna configuration has been done and depth estimates produced. We conclude that, as with other GPR and time domain EM systems, the best choice of operating parameters depends on the application and the environment, but the inherent flexibility of the VETEM system allows a wide range of options.
Additional Publication Details
Imaging and modeling new VETEM data
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
Bellingham, WA, United States
Number of Pages:
GPR 2000: The 8th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar