The peneplaned Archean craton in the Lake Superior region was the platform upon which a continental margin assemblage was deposited. Extension resulted in localized rifts that received thicker accumulations of sediments and volcanic rocks than did adjacent parts of the platform. Seas transgressed onto the continent several times and an ocean basin opened south of the present-day Lake Superior. Island arcs that formed during subduction collided with the craton margin as the ocean basin closed; oceanic crust is poorly preserved as a dismembered ophiolite sequence. The arc volcanics are preserved as the Wisconsin magmatic terranes. The collision resulted in a fold-and-thrust belt known as the Penokean orogen. To the north of the fold-and-thrust belt, a northward-migrating foreland basin - the Animikie basin - developed. Thick turbidite successions were deposited along the basin axis, and terrigenous clastics and Lake Superior-type iron-formation were deposited on the shelf along the northern margin of the basin. The primary paleoclimatic indicators are: (1) glaciogenic rocks at the base of the Paleoproterozoic succession in Michigan indicating ice-house conditions; 2) remnants of a paleosol on the glaciogenic rocks indicative of deep weathering, probably under subtropical conditions and therefore of greenhouse conditions; and (3) carbonate minerals after gypsum, halite, and anhydrite in stromatolitic dolomite, indicative of aridity. Three second-order depositional sequences are bounded by major unconformities, and can be correlated throughout the Lake Superior region. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Additional publication details
Paleoproterozoic basin development and sedimentation in the Lake Superior region, North America