We analyse quantitatively a waveform data set of 238 earthquakes recorded by a dense seismic array across and along the rupture zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake. A grid-search method with station delay corrections is used to locate events that do not have catalogue locations. The quality of fault zone trapped waves generated by each event is determined from the ratios of seismic energy in time windows corresponding to trapped waves and direct S waves at stations close to and off the fault zone. Approximately 70 per cent of the events with S-P times of less than 2 s, including many clearly off the fault, produce considerable trapped wave energy. This distribution is in marked contrast with previous claims that trapped waves are generated only by sources close to or inside the Landers rupture zone. The time difference between the S arrival and trapped waves group does not grow systematically with increasing hypocentral distance and depth. The dispersion measured from the trapped waves is weak. These results imply that the seismic trapping structure at the Landers rupture zone is shallow and does not extend continuously along-strike by more than a few kilometres. Synthetic waveform modelling indicates that the fault zone waveguide has depth of approximately 2-4 km, a width of approximately 200 m, an S-wave velocity reduction relative to the host rock of approximately 30-40 per cent and an S-wave attenuation coefficient of approximately 20-30. The fault zone waveguide north of the array appears to be shallower and weaker than that south of the array. The waveform modelling also indicates that the seismic trapping structure below the array is centred approximately 100 m east of the surface break.
Additional publication details
Quantitative analysis of seismic fault zone waves in the rupture zone of the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake: Evidence for a shallow trapping structure