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The 1999 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake: A 3D dynamic stress transfer model of intraearthquake triggering

Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America

By:
, , ,
DOI: 10.1785/0120000825

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Abstract

Before the August 1999 Izmit (Kocaeli), Turkey, earthquake, theoretical studies of earthquake ruptures and geological observations had provided estimates of how far an earthquake might jump to get to a neighboring fault. Both numerical simulations and geological observations suggested that 5 km might be the upper limit if there were no transfer faults. The Izmit earthquake appears to have followed these expectations. It did not jump across any step-over wider than 5 km and was instead stopped by a narrower step-over at its eastern end and possibly by a stress shadow caused by a historic large earthquake at its western end. Our 3D spontaneous rupture simulations of the 1999 Izmit earthquake provide two new insights: (1) the west- to east-striking fault segments of this part of the North Anatolian fault are oriented so as to be low-stress faults and (2) the easternmost segment involved in the August 1999 rupture may be dipping. An interesting feature of the Izmit earthquake is that a 5-km-long gap in surface rupture and an adjacent 25° restraining bend in the fault zone did not stop the earthquake. The latter observation is a warning that significant fault bends in strike-slip faults may not arrest future earthquakes.

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Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
The 1999 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake: A 3D dynamic stress transfer model of intraearthquake triggering
Series title:
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America
DOI:
10.1785/0120000825
Volume
92
Issue:
1
Year Published:
2002
Language:
English
Publisher:
Seismological Society of America
Publisher location:
El Cerrito, CA
Contributing office(s):
Earthquake Science Center
Description:
11 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America
First page:
245
Last page:
255
Country:
Turkey
City:
Izmit