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Ups and downs on spreading flanks of ocean-island volcanoes: Evidence from Mauna Loa and Ki??lauea

Geology

By:
, ,
DOI: 10.1130/G19745.1

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Abstract

Submarine-flank deposits of Hawaiian volcanoes are widely recognized to have formed largely by gravitationally driven volcano spreading and associated landsliding. Observations from submersibles show that prominent benches at middepths on flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea consist of volcaniclastic debris derived by landsliding from nearby shallow submarine and subaerial flanks of the same edifice. Massive slide breccias from the mature subaerial tholeiitic shield of Mauna Loa underlie the frontal scarp of its South Kona bench. In contrast, coarse volcaniclastic sediments derived largely from submarine-erupted preshield alkalic and transitional basalts of ancestral Kilauea underlie its Hilina bench. Both midslope benches record the same general processes of slope failure, followed by modest compression during continued volcano spreading, even though they record development during different stages of edifice growth. The dive results suggest that volcaniclastic rocks at the north end of the Kona bench, interpreted by others as distal sediments from older volcanoes that were offscraped, uplifted, and accreted to the island by far-traveled thrusts, alternatively are a largely coherent stratigraphic assemblage deposited in a basin behind the South Kona bench.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Ups and downs on spreading flanks of ocean-island volcanoes: Evidence from Mauna Loa and Ki??lauea
Series title:
Geology
DOI:
10.1130/G19745.1
Volume
31
Issue:
10
Year Published:
2003
Language:
English
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Geology
First page:
841
Last page:
844
Number of Pages:
4