The Mordor Complex consists of a series of potassic ultramafic rocks which were intruded into Proterozoic felsic gneisses and amphibolite and are overlain by quartzite and unconsolidated deposits. In situ and laboratory 0.4 to 2.5 ??m reflectance spectra show Al-OH absorption features caused by absorption in muscovite, kaolinite, and illite/smectite in syenite, granitic gneiss, quartzite and unconsolidated sedimentary deposits, and Fe,Mg-OH features due to phlogopite, biotite, epidote, and hornblende in the mafic and ultramafic rocks. Ferrous-iron absorption positioned near 1.05 ??m is most intense in peridotite reflectance spectra. Ferric-iron absorption is intense in most of the felsic lithologies. HyMap data were recorded in 126 narrow bands from 0.43 to 2.5 ??m along a 7-km-wide swath with approximately 6-m spatial resolution. Correction of the data to spectral reflectance was accomplished by reference to in situ measurements of an extensive, alluvial plain. Spectral classes for matched filter processing were selected by using the pixel purity index procedure and analysis of in situ and laboratory spectra. Considering the spatial distribution of the resulting 14 classes, some classes were combined, which produced eight classes characterized by Al-OH absorption features, and three Fe,Mg-OH absorption-feature classes. Comparison of the distribution of these 11 spectral classes to a generalized lithologic map of the study area shows that the spectral distinction among the eight Al-OH classes is related to variations in primary lithology, weathering products, and vegetation density. Quartzite is represented in three classes, syenite corresponds to a single scattered class, quartz-muscovite-biotite schist defines a single very coherent class, and unconsolidated sediments are portrayed in four classes. The three mafic-ultramafic classes are distinguished on the basis of generally intense Fe,Mg-OH and ferrous-iron absorption features. A single class represents the main Mordor ultramafic mass. Epidote-bearing rocks define another class, which corresponds to biotite gneiss and, in the southern part of the area, to fracture zones. The third class, which exhibits Al-OH, as well as Fe,Mg-OH features, represents hornblende gneiss and other mafic gneisses. These results indicate the importance of analyzing the VNIR and SWIR spectral shape and albedo, as well as analyzing specific spectral features, for mapping lithologic units in this weathered terrain. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Hyperspectral analysis of the ultramafic complex and adjacent lithologies at Mordor, NT, Australia