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Currently 20-30 billion bbl/yr of formation water are co-produced in the US with conventional oil and natural gas. The large database on the geochemistry of this produced water shows salinities that vary widely from ??? 5000 to > 350,000 mg/L TDS. Chloride, Na, and Ca are generally the dominant ions, and concentrations of Fe, Mn, B, NH3, and dissolved organics, including, BTEX, phenols and PAH may be relatively high. As an alternative to costly disposal, low salinity produced water is being considered for reclamation, especially in the arid western US. The cost of reclaiming this water to meet irrigation, industrial, and drinking water standards was evaluated in a 10 gpm pilot field study at Placerita oil field, CA. This produced water had low salinity but high concentration of Si and organics. Removal of B, Si, NH3, and especially organics from this water proved difficult, and the estimated treatment cost was high for water treated for industrial and municipal uses.
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Organic and inorganic species in produced water: Implications for water reuse
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Proceedings - Natural Gas Technologies II: Ingenuity and Innovation