Although popular and scientific literature frequently assumes a strong connection between El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and good displays of spring-flowering annuals in the southwestern United States, such assumptions are based on anecdotal, short-term evidence. The goals of this study were to identify good wildflower years as objectively as possible, to assess the correlation between El Nin??o and good displays of spring-flowering annuals, and to examine the influence of rainfall amounts on good wildflower years. The terms "good displays" and "good wildflower years" refer to times or places when populations of showy spring-flowering annuals (often called winter annuals) are abundant, robust, and diverse. In the deserts of southeastern California and southern Arizona, good wildflower years occurred about once every 5 to 7 years in the 20th century. The connection between good wildflower years and traditionally defined El Nin??o episodes was weak, but when El Nin??o was redefined in a phenologically meaningful way as any calendar year in which the average Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) between July and December was negative, 21 of 27 good wildflower years in the combined deserts were associated with El Nin??o. Good wildflower years were 3.6 times more likely after redefined El Nin??o years than after other years. Rain in the months before good wildflower years was at least 30% greater than the long-term average in the Mojave Desert and at least 50% greater in the Sonoran Desert. A diverse flora of spring-flowering annuals occurred in the region during the late Wisconsin and early Holocene, which was a period of wetter, milder winters and cooler summers. Perhaps some species of spring-flowering annuals persist today in the arid southwestern United States only because frequent El Nin??o conditions recreate the cool, moist conditions of the late Pleistocene.
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El Nin??o and displays of spring-flowering annuals in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts