p,p???-DDE, the main metabolite of DDT, is still detected in aquatic environments throughout the world. Here, the effects and mechanisms by which p,p???-DDE exposure might affect the immune system of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was studied. Isolated salmon splenic and pronephric leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of p,p???-DDE, and cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and mitogenic responses were measured by flow cytometry and Alamar Blue assay. p,p???-DDE significantly reduced cell viability and proliferation and increased apoptosis. The effect of p,p???-DDE on pronephric leukocytes was more severe than on splenic leukocytes, likely because pronephric leukocytes had a higher proportion of granulocytes, cells that appear more sensitive to p,p???-DDE. The effect of p,p???-DDE on leukocytes appeared to vary between developmental stages or seasonal differences. The mitogenic response of leukocytes of chinook salmon exposed to p,p???-DDE in vivo exhibited a biphasic dose-response relationship. Only leukocytes isolated from salmon treated with 59 ppm p,p???-DDE had a significantly lower percentage of Ig+ blasting cells than controls, although the response was biphasic. These results support the theory that exposure to chemical contaminants could lead to an increase in disease susceptibility and mortality of fish due to immune suppression. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Additional Publication Details
p,p???-DDE depresses the immune competence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) leukocytes