thumbnail

Progression of methanogenic degradation of crude oil in the subsurface

Environmental Geosciences

By:
, , , , , and
DOI: 10.1306/eg.11160404036

Links

Abstract

Our results show that subsurface crude-oil degradation rates at a long-term research site were strongly influenced by small-scale variations in hydrologic conditions. The site is a shallow glacial outwash aquifer located near Bemidji in northern Minnesota that became contaminated when oil spilled from a broken pipeline in August 1979. In the study area, separate-phase oil forms a subsurface oil body extending from land surface to about 1 m (3.3 ft) below the 6-8-m (20-26 ft)-deep water table. Oil saturation in the sediments ranges from 10-20% in the vadose zone to 30-70% near the water table. At depths below 2 m (6.6 ft), degradation of the separate-phase crude oil occurs under methanogenic conditions. The sequence of methanogenic alkane degradation depletes the longer chain n-alkanes before the shorter chain n-alkanes, which is opposite to the better known aerobic sequence. The rates of degradation vary significantly with location in the subsurface. Oil-coated soils within 1.5 m (5 ft) of land surface have experienced little degradation where soil water saturation is less than 20%. Oil located 2-8 m (6.6-26 ft) below land surface in areas of higher recharge has been substantially degraded. The best explanation for the association between recharge and enhanced degradation seems to be increased downward transport of microbial growth nutrients to the oil body. This is supported by observations of greater microbial numbers at higher elevations in the oil body and significant decreases with depth in nutrient concentrations, especially phosphorus. Our results suggest that environmental effects may cause widely diverging degradation rates in the same spill, calling into question dating methods based on degradation state. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Progression of methanogenic degradation of crude oil in the subsurface
Series title:
Environmental Geosciences
DOI:
10.1306/eg.11160404036
Volume
12
Issue:
2
Year Published:
2005
Language:
English
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Environmental Geosciences
First page:
139
Last page:
152
Number of Pages:
14