Event-response coring on the Po River prodelta (northern Adriatic Sea) coupled with shipboard digital X-radiography, resistivity profiling, and grain-size analyses permitted documentation of the initial distribution and physical properties of the October 2000 flood deposit. The digital X-radiography system comprises a constant-potential X-ray source and an amorphous silicon imager with an active area of 29??42 cm and 12-bit depth resolution. Objective image segmentation algorithms based on bulk density (brightness), layer contacts (edge detection) and small-scale texture (fabric) were used to identify the flood deposit. Results indicate that the deposit formed in water depths of 6-29 m immediately adjacent to the three main distributary mouths of the Po (Pila, Tolle and Gnocca/Goro). Maximal thickness was 36 cm at a 20-m site off the main mouth (Pila), but many other sites hadthicknesses >20 cm. The Po flood deposit has a complex internal stratigraphy, with multiple layers, a diverse suite of physical sedimentary structures (e.g., laminations, ripple cross bedding, lenticular bedding, soft-sediment deformation structures), and dramatic changes in grain size that imply rapid deposition and fluctuations in energy during emplacement. Based on the flood deposit volume and well-constrained measurements of deposit bulk density the mass of the flood deposit was estimated to be 16??109 kg, which is about two-thirds of the estimated suspended sediment load delivered by the river during the event. The locus of deposition, overall thickness, and stratigraphic complexity of the flood deposit can best be explained by the relatively long sediment throughput times of the Po River, whereby sediment is delivered to the ocean during a range of conditions (i.e., the storm responsible for the precipitation is long gone), the majority of which are reflective of the fair-weather condition. Sediment is therefore deposited proximal to the river mouths, where it can form thick, but stratigraphically complex deposits. In contrast, floods of small rivers such as the Eel (northern California) are coupled to storm conditions, which lead to high levels of sediment dispersion. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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The large-scale distribution and internal geometry of the fall 2000 Po River flood deposit: Evidence from digital X-radiography