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Teleseismic body waves from dynamically rupturing shallow thrust faults: Are they opaque for surface-reflected phases?

Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America

By:
, ,
DOI: 10.1785/0120030171

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Abstract

We investigate whether a shallow-dipping thrust fault is prone to waveslip interactions via surface-reflected waves affecting the dynamic slip. If so, can these interactions create faults that are opaque to radiated energy? Furthermore, in this case of a shallow-dipping thrust fault, can incorrectly assuming a transparent fault while using dislocation theory lead to underestimates of seismic moment? Slip time histories are generated in three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulations while allowing for varying degrees of wave-slip interaction controlled by fault-friction models. Based on the slip time histories, P and SH seismograms are calculated for stations at teleseismic distances. The overburdening pressure caused by gravity eliminates mode I opening except at the tip of the fault near the surface; hence, mode I opening has no effect on the teleseismic signal. Normalizing by a Haskell-like traditional kinematic rupture, we find teleseismic peak-to-peak displacement amplitudes are approximately 1.0 for both P and SH waves, except for the unrealistic case of zero sliding friction. Zero sliding friction has peak-to-peak amplitudes of 1.6 for P and 2.0 for SH waves; the fault slip oscillates about its equilibrium value, resulting in a large nonzero (0.08 Hz) spectral peak not seen in other ruptures. These results indicate wave-slip interactions associated with surface-reflected phases in real earthquakes should have little to no effect on teleseismic motions. Thus, Haskell-like kinematic dislocation theory (transparent fault conditions) can be safety used to simulate teleseismic waveforms in the Earth.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Teleseismic body waves from dynamically rupturing shallow thrust faults: Are they opaque for surface-reflected phases?
Series title:
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America
DOI:
10.1785/0120030171
Volume
95
Issue:
3
Year Published:
2005
Language:
English
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
First page:
800
Last page:
817
Number of Pages:
18