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Rootless shield and perched lava pond collapses at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

Bulletin of Volcanology

By:
and
DOI: 10.1007/s00445-011-0505-9

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Abstract

Effusion rate is a primary measurement used to judge the expected advance rate, length, and hazard potential of lava flows. At basaltic volcanoes, the rapid draining of lava stored in rootless shields and perched ponds can produce lava flows with much higher local effusion rates and advance velocities than would be expected based on the effusion rate at the vent. For several months in 2007–2008, lava stored in a series of perched ponds and rootless shields on Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, was released episodically to produce fast-moving 'a'ā lava flows. Several of these lava flows approached Royal Gardens subdivision and threatened the safety of remaining residents. Using time-lapse image measurements, we show that the initial time-averaged discharge rate for one collapse-triggered lava flow was approximately eight times greater than the effusion rate at the vent. Though short-lived, the collapse-triggered 'a'ā lava flows had average advance rates approximately 45 times greater than that of the pāhoehoe flow field from which they were sourced. The high advance rates of the collapse-triggered lava flows demonstrates that recognition of lava accumulating in ponds and shields, which may be stored in a cryptic manner, is vital for accurately assessing short-term hazards at basaltic volcanoes.

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Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Rootless shield and perched lava pond collapses at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i
Series title:
Bulletin of Volcanology
DOI:
10.1007/s00445-011-0505-9
Volume
74
Issue:
1
Year Published:
2012
Language:
English
Publisher:
Springer
Publisher location:
Amsterdam, Netherlands
Description:
12 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Bulletin of Volcanology
First page:
67
Last page:
78
Country:
United States
State:
Hawai'i
Online Only (Y/N):
N
Additional Online Files(Y/N):
N