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Caldera collapse: Perspectives from comparing Galápagos volcanoes, nuclear-test sinks, sandbox models, and volcanoes on Mars

GSA Today

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DOI: 10.1130/GSATG82A.1

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Abstract

The 1968 trapdoor collapse (1.5 km3) of Fernandina caldera in the Galapágos Islands developed the same kinds of structures as found in small sandbox-collapse models and in concentrically zoned sinks formed in desert alluvium by fault subsidence into underground nuclear-explosion cavities. Fernandina’s collapse developed through shear failure in which the roof above the evacuating chamber was lowered mostly intact. This coherent subsidence contrasts to chaotic piecemeal collapse at small, rocky pit craters, underscoring the role of rock strength relative to subsidence size. The zoning at Fernandina implies that the deflated magma chamber underlay a central basin and a bordering inward-dipping monocline, which separates a blind inner reverse fault from an outer zone of normal faulting. Similar concentric zoning patterns can be recognized in coherent subsidence structures ranging over 16 orders of magnitude in size, from sandbox experiments to the giant Olympus Mons caldera on Mars.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Caldera collapse: Perspectives from comparing Galápagos volcanoes, nuclear-test sinks, sandbox models, and volcanoes on Mars
Series title:
GSA Today
DOI:
10.1130/GSATG82A.1
Volume
20
Issue:
10
Year Published:
2010
Language:
English
Publisher:
Geological Society of America
Publisher location:
Boulder, CO
Contributing office(s):
Volcano Science Center
Description:
7 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
First page:
4
Last page:
10