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Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes

Journal of Environmental Quality

By:
, , , and
DOI: 10.2134/jeq2011.0480

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Abstract

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0–2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m-2 yr-1. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes
Series title:
Journal of Environmental Quality
DOI:
10.2134/jeq2011.0480
Volume
41
Issue:
4
Year Published:
2012
Language:
English
Publisher:
American Society of Agronomy
Publisher location:
Madison, WI
Contributing office(s):
New Jersey Water Science Center
Description:
13 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Journal of Environmental Quality
First page:
1324
Last page:
1336
Country:
United States
State:
Nevada
Other Geospatial:
Amargosa Desert Research Site