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A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity

PLoS ONE

By:
, , , , , , , , , ,
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036213

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Abstract

The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity
Series title:
PLoS ONE
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0036213
Volume
7
Issue:
5
Year Published:
2012
Language:
English
Publisher:
PLOS ONE
Publisher location:
San Francisco, CA
Contributing office(s):
Western Fisheries Research Center
Description:
7 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
PLoS ONE
First page:
e36213
Country:
United States