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Source and transport of human enteric viruses in deep municipal water supply wells

Environmental Science and Technology

By:
, , , , ,
DOI: 10.1021/es400509b

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Abstract

Until recently, few water utilities or researchers were aware of possible virus presence in deep aquifers and wells. During 2008 and 2009 we collected a time series of virus samples from six deep municipal water-supply wells. The wells range in depth from approximately 220 to 300 m and draw water from a sandstone aquifer. Three of these wells draw water from beneath a regional aquitard, and three draw water from both above and below the aquitard. We also sampled a local lake and untreated sewage as potential virus sources. Viruses were detected up to 61% of the time in each well sampled, and many groundwater samples were positive for virus infectivity. Lake samples contained viruses over 75% of the time. Virus concentrations and serotypes observed varied markedly with time in all samples. Sewage samples were all extremely high in virus concentration. Virus serotypes detected in sewage and groundwater were temporally correlated, suggesting very rapid virus transport, on the order of weeks, from the source(s) to wells. Adenovirus and enterovirus levels in the wells were associated with precipitation events. The most likely source of the viruses in the wells was leakage of untreated sewage from sanitary sewer pipes.

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Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Source and transport of human enteric viruses in deep municipal water supply wells
Series title:
Environmental Science and Technology
DOI:
10.1021/es400509b
Volume
47
Issue:
9
Year Published:
2013
Language:
English
Publisher:
ACS Publications
Contributing office(s):
Wisconsin Water Science Center
Description:
8 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Environmental Science and Technology
First page:
4096
Last page:
4103
Number of Pages:
8
Country:
United States
State:
Wisconsin
City:
Madison