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West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

By:
, , , and
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0408

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Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from < 3-week-old chicks for antibodies to WNV; 5% of chicks were seropositive, suggesting passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival
Series title:
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
DOI:
10.4269/ajtmh.12-0408
Volume
88
Issue:
6
Year Published:
2013
Language:
English
Publisher:
American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Contributing office(s):
Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Description:
7 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
First page:
1152
Last page:
1158