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Use of lethal short-term chlorine exposures to limit release of non-native freshwater organisms

North American Journal of Aquaculture

By:
, , , , , and
DOI: 10.1080/15222055.2013.786008

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Abstract

Fish hatcheries and other types of aquatic facilities are potential sources for the introduction of nonnative species of fish or aquatic invertebrates into watersheds. Chlorine has been suggested for use to kill organisms that might be released from the effluent of a facility. While acute LC50s (concentrations lethal to 50% of organisms exposed for up to 96 h) for chlorine are available for some species, short-term LC100s for chlorine have not been determined. The objective of this study is to establish concentrations of chlorine that are lethal to 100% of organisms after brief (1-, 5-, or 15-min) exposures. A total of 22 species were exposed to total residual chlorine concentrations (TRC) of 1, 10, or 25 mg TRC/L for 1, 5, or 15 min under static conditions followed by a 24-h postexposure recovery period in water without the addition of chlorine. Concentrations of chlorine resulting in 100% lethality of organisms were established for all of the species tested except for four species of mollusks or for a beetle. Exposures for 5 to 15 min to 10–25 mg TRC/L were the lowest combined time–chlorine treatments under which all of the fish tested and the other invertebrates tested (17 species) exhibited 100% lethality by the end of the initial chlorine exposures or after the 24-h recovery period.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Use of lethal short-term chlorine exposures to limit release of non-native freshwater organisms
Series title:
North American Journal of Aquaculture
DOI:
10.1080/15222055.2013.786008
Volume
75
Issue:
4
Year Published:
2013
Language:
English
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Contributing office(s):
Columbia Environmental Research Center
Description:
8 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
North American Journal of Aquaculture
First page:
487
Last page:
494