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Functional diversity supports the physiological tolerance hypothesis for plant species richness along climatic gradients

Journal of Ecology

By:
, , , and
DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12204

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Abstract

1. The physiological tolerance hypothesis proposes that plant species richness is highest in warm and/or wet climates because a wider range of functional strategies can persist under such conditions. Functional diversity metrics, combined with statistical modeling, offer new ways to test whether diversity-environment relationships are consistent with this hypothesis. 2. In a classic study by R. H. Whittaker (1960), herb species richness declined from mesic (cool, moist, northerly) slopes to xeric (hot, dry, southerly) slopes. Building on this dataset, we measured four plant functional traits (plant height, specific leaf area, leaf water content and foliar C:N) and used them to calculate three functional diversity metrics (functional richness, evenness, and dispersion). We then used a structural equation model to ask if ‘functional diversity’ (modeled as the joint responses of richness, evenness, and dispersion) could explain the observed relationship of topographic climate gradients to species richness. We then repeated our model examining the functional diversity of each of the four traits individually. 3. Consistent with the physiological tolerance hypothesis, we found that functional diversity was higher in more favorable climatic conditions (mesic slopes), and that multivariate functional diversity mediated the relationship of the topographic climate gradient to plant species richness. We found similar patterns for models focusing on individual trait functional diversity of leaf water content and foliar C:N. 4. Synthesis. Our results provide trait-based support for the physiological tolerance hypothesis, suggesting that benign climates support more species because they allow for a wider range of functional strategies.

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Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Functional diversity supports the physiological tolerance hypothesis for plant species richness along climatic gradients
Series title:
Journal of Ecology
DOI:
10.1111/1365-2745.12204
Volume
102
Issue:
2
Year Published:
2013
Language:
English
Publisher:
Wiley
Contributing office(s):
National Wetlands Research Center
Description:
9 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
Journal of Ecology
First page:
447
Last page:
455
Country:
United States
State:
Oregon
Other Geospatial:
Siskiyou Mountains