In this chapter, we focus on emergent biological patterns in riverine ecosystems at landscape scales resulting from surface-subsurface water interaction. Our objectives are to examine (1) how the balance of physical and chemical factors on the "natural" geologic template affects biological patterns, (2) how natural hydrothermal systems can be used as a model for understanding surface-subsurface interactions and biological patterns in streams, and (3) how anthropogenic influences decouple the stream from the landscape by altering the nature of surface-subsurface water interactions and affecting biological patterns. We conclude with a synthesis and recommendations for further studies.
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Emergent biological patterns and surface-subsurface interactions at landscape scales