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The role of landscape features and density dependence in growth andfledging rates of Piping Plovers in North Dakota, USA

BioOne

By:
, , , , and
DOI: 10.1650/CONDOR-13-001-R1.1

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Abstract

For species with precocial young, survival from hatching to fledging is a key factor influencing recruitment. Furthermore, growth rates of precocial chicks are an indicator of forage quality and habitat suitability of brood-rearing areas. We examined how growth and fledging rates of Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) chicks were influenced by landscape features, such as hatchling density (hatchlings per hectare of remotely sensed habitat [H ha-1]), island vs. mainland, and wind fetch (exposure to waves) at 2-km segments (n ¼ 15) of Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota, during 2007–2008. Hatchling growth was comparable with published estimates for other habitats. Models for fledging rate (fledged young per segment) assuming density dependence had more support (wi ¼ 96%) than those assuming density independence (wi ¼ 4%). Density-dependent processes appeared to influence fledging rate only at densities .5 H ha-1, which occurred in 19% of the segments we sampled. When areas with densities .5 H ha-1 were excluded, density-dependence and density-independence models were equally supported (wi ¼ 52% and 48%, respectively). Fledging rate declined as the wind fetch of a segment increased. Fledging rate on mainland shorelines was 4.3 times greater than that on islands. Previous work has indicated that plovers prefer islands for nesting, but our results suggest that this preference is not optimal and could lead to an ecological trap for chicks. While other researchers have found nesting-habitat requirements to be gravelly areas on exposed beaches without fine-grain substrates, our results suggest that chicks fledge at lower rates in these habitats. Thus, breeding plovers likely require complexes of these nesting habitats along with protected areas with fine, nutrient-rich substrate for foraging by hatchlings.

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Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
The role of landscape features and density dependence in growth andfledging rates of Piping Plovers in North Dakota, USA
Series title:
BioOne
DOI:
10.1650/CONDOR-13-001-R1.1
Volume
116
Issue:
2
Year Published:
2014
Language:
English
Publisher:
The Condor
Contributing office(s):
Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Description:
10 p.
Larger Work Type:
Article
Larger Work Subtype:
Journal Article
Larger Work Title:
BioOne
First page:
195
Last page:
204
Country:
United States
State:
North Dakota
Other Geospatial:
Lake Sakakawea