|Abstract:||The Anlauf and Drain quadrangles, Oregon, lie about 20 miles south of the city of Eugene, in Douglas and Lane Counties. They constitute an area of about 435 square miles that includes parts of both the Cascade Range and Coast Range physiographic provinces.
A sequence of lower Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks with a maximum
thickness of about 20,000 feet is exposed in the area. The oldest part of this
sequence is the Umpqua formation of early Eocene age consisting of a lower
member of vesicular and amygdaloidal olivine basalt flows, a middle member
of water-laid vitric and lapilli crystal tuff, and an upper member of interbedded fissile siltstone and basaltic sandstone which contains a 300-foot tongue of massive to thick-bedded basaltic sandstone near its top. These rocks are predominantly of marine origin, although the general absence of pillow structures which are common in basaltic lavas of equivalent age elsewhere in the Coast Ranges suggests that some of the flows were poured out subaerially. The overlying tuff member, however, contains Foraminifera and in places has a
lime content slightly in excess of 10 percent. Mollusca and Foraminifera indicate that the Umpqua formation is of early Eocene age and is a correlative of the Capay formation of California.
The Tyee formation of middle Eocene age overlies the Umpqua formation and consists of more than 5,000 feet of rhythmically deposited sandstone and
siltstone in beds 2 to 30 feet thick. The basal part of each bed consists of
medium- to coarse-grained sandstone that grades upward into fine-grained sand-
stone and siltstone. The principal constituents of the sandstone are quartz,
partly a1tered feldspar, mica, clay, and fragments of basalt, fine-grained argillaceous rocks, and mica schist. Other detrital minerals include epidote, garnet, blue-green hornblende, tourmaline, and zoisite. The depositional environment of the Tyee formation is poorly known, although the rhythmic-graded bedding suggests turbidity currents.
About 500 feet of sandstone and siltstone assigned to the Spencer formation
of late Eocene age unconformably overlies the Tyee formation. The Spencer
formation, better exposed in the east-central part of the Coast Ranges, contains marine fossils but also has thin impure coal beds, indicative of strand-line accumulation. The sandstone in the Spencer formation is very similar to that in the Tyee formation, from which it was probably derived.
The Fisher formation contains about 5,500 feet of nonmarine pyroclastic and
volcanic rocks that are related to the volcanic rock sequences of the western Cascade Range. The formation is characterized by a wide variety of rock types,
including conglomerate, tuffaceous sandstone and siltstone, vitric and crystal
tuff, waterlaid and mudflow breccia, and andesitic lava flows. These rocks gen-
erally occur in lenticular beds that have little stratigraphic significance. The rocks apparently accumulated on a plain slightly above sea level that was subjected alternately to fiooding by running water and to desiccation. Fossil leaves from the lowermost part of the Fisher formation are of late Eocene age; the upper part of the formation is of early, and possibly niiddle, Oligocene age.
A few exposures of olivine basalt were mapped in the extreme northern part
of the Anlauf quadrangle. The flows, more extensively exposed to the north,
overlie the Fisher formation, and, therefore, are tentatively considered to be
post-Oligocene in age.
All these stratigraphic units, but principally the Fisher formation, are cut by
dikes, sills, and stocklike bodies of ‘porphyritic basalt, diabase, and norite. Contemporaneously with the emplacement of most of these rocks, in late Miocene (?) time, hydrothermal solutions locailly altered the sedimentary and extrusive
igneous racks and deposited cinnabar and other sulfide minerals, carbonates, and silica.
Three parallel nartheastward-trending