Geochemical analyses of rock samples and produced oil and gas in the Indus Basin have shown that the bulk of the hydrocarbons produced in the Indus Basin are derived from the Lower Cretaceous Sembar Formation and equivalent rocks. The source rocks of the Sembar are composed of shales that were deposited in shallow marine environments, are of mixed type-II and type-III kerogen, with total organic carbon (TOC) content ranging from less than 0.5 percent to more than 3.5 percent; the average TOC of the Sembar is about 1.4 percent. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values range from immature (< 0.6 percent Ro) to over mature (>1.35 percent Ro). Thermal generation of hydrocarbons in the Sembar Formation began 65 to 40 million years ago, (Mya) during Paleocene to Oligocene time. Hydrocarbon expulsion, migration, and entrapment are interpreted to have occurred mainly 50 to 15 Mya, during Eocene to Miocene time, prior to and contemporaneously with the development of structural traps in Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs. The principal reservoirs in the Sembar-Goru/Ghazij Composite Total Petroleum System are Upper Cretaceous through Eocene sandstones and limestones.
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USGS Numbered Series
Sembar Goru/Ghazij Composite Total Petroleum System, Indus and Sulaiman-Kirthar Geologic Provinces, Pakistan and India