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Byproduct mineral commodities used for the production of photovoltaic cells

Circular 1365

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Abstract

Rising fossil fuel costs, environmental concerns relating to global climate change, and Government policy to signifcantly increase our Nation's energy independence have placed greater emphasis on the generation of electricity from renewable sources, such as the Sun (light and heat), water, and wind, which for all intents and purposes are inexhaustible resources. Although the total amount of electricity generated from the direct conversion of sunlight through photovoltaic cells is relatively small compared with that from other forms of renewable energy, the rate of growth in the sector is signifcant. The total value of energy of photovoltaic cells produced worldwide increased to nearly 7 gigawatts (GW) in 2008 from 45 megawatts (MW) in 1990, a compound annual growth rate of about 30 percent. In the United States, manufacturing of photovoltaic cells has grown exponentially to about 480 MW in 2008, accounting for 6 percent of world production, from less than 10 MW of photovoltaic capacity in 1990 (Benner, 2007; U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, 2010), a compound annual growth rate of approxi-mately 23 percent. A production capacity of 1 GW of electricity [or 8,760 gigawatthours1 (GWh)] is equivalent to the annual electricity requirements for roughly 800,000 average households in the United States (U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, 2010). This estimate does not include losses of electricity, such as during transmission through power lines.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Byproduct mineral commodities used for the production of photovoltaic cells
Series title:
Circular
Series number:
1365
Edition:
-
Year Published:
2010
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey
Contributing office(s):
National Minerals Information Center
Description:
iv, 10 p.
Online Only (Y/N):
N
Additional Online Files(Y/N):
N