The promise of precise borehole gravimetry in petroleum exploration and exploitation

Circular 531




This report provides comprehensive information on the geology, geohydrology, and mineral resources of Boone and Winnebago Counties for use in resource-based land-use planning and development. Data on the composition, thickness, and regional distribution of glacial drift and bedrock materials were used to construct maps of: geologic materials to a depth of 20 ft; bedrock topography; drift thickness; major terrains; and glacial drift aquifers. Because contamination of aquifers is a serious concern in some areas of the two counties, a major focus of this study is on interpreting data critical to the selection of suitable areas for municipal waste disposal and prevention of contamination from existing municipal landfills and septic systems. Interpretive maps accompanying the text: (1) rate geological sequences on their capacity to protect aquifers and surface water from contamination by land burial of municipal wastes, septic system disposal, and surface spreading of wastes and agricultural chemicals; (2) geologic sequences on their suitability for general construction; and (3) delineate resources of sand, gravel, peat, and dolomite. Areas in which aquifer contamination from waste disposal and other land-use practices is most likely to occur are those in which sand and gravel and/or permeable creviced bedrock are at or near the surface. Areas having the lowest contamination potential are underlain by thick (20 ft or more) deposits of fine-grained glacial till. Areas most favorable for general construction are well-drained locations in major river valleys and terrace outwash plains; areas least favorable for construction are scattered throughout both counties on poorly drained land having low bearing capacities and on uplands and slopes in northwestern Winnebago County where the drift is thin over the bedrock. Extensive deposits of sand and gravel occur in the major bedrock valleys. Dolomite deposits underlie all the uplands of Winnebago County and most of Boone County, but extraction costs are prohibitive where overburden is thick. High-grade dolomite with relatively thin overburden is found in eastern Winnebago County and southwestern Boone County. (Author 's abstract)

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The promise of precise borehole gravimetry in petroleum exploration and exploitation
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[U.S. Geological Survey],
iii, 12 p. :illus. ;27 cm.