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The U.S. Geological Survey is active in the development and use of models for the analysis of various types of surface-water problems. Types of problems for which models have been, or are being developed, include categories such as the following: (1)specialized hydraulics, (2)flow routing in streams, estuaries, lakes, and reservoirs, (3) sedimentation, (4) transport of physical, chemical, and biological constituents, (5) surface exchange of heat and mass, (6) coupled stream-aquifer flow systems, (7) physical hydrology for rainfall-runoff relations, stream-system simulations, channel geometry, and water quality, (8) statistical hydrology for synthetic streamflows, floods, droughts, storage, and water quality, (9) management and operation problems, and (10) miscellaneous hydrologic problems. Following a brief review of activities prior to 1970, the current status of surface-water modeling is given as being in a developmental, verification, operational, or continued improvement phase. A list of recently published selected references, provides useful details on the characteristics of models.
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Status of surface-water modeling in the U.S. Geological Survey