Coal resources of New Mexico

Circular 89

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A study of water quality degradation due to brine contamination was made in an area of about 1,700 sq mi in east-central Oklahoma. The study area coincides in part with the outcrop of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer of Pennsylvanian age. Water samples collected from 180 wells completed in the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer and at 167 sites from streams draining the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer show scattered occurrences of water quality degradation by brine. Degradation of water quality by brine is indicated where: (1) chloride concentration is > or = to 400 mg/L; (2) bromide concentration is > or = 2 mg/L; (3) the ratio of sodium plus chloride to dissolved solids is > or = 0.64. Ratios of secondary importance that also indicate water quality degradation by brine in the area are: (1) a ratio of lithium to bromide < or = 0.01, when the chloride concentration is > or = 400 mg/L; (2) a sodium/chloride ratio of about 0.46; (3) a sodium/bromide ratio of about 92; and (4) a bromide/chloride ratio of about 0.0048. Values for bromide, lithium, strontium, dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate concentrations were subjected to analysis of variance based on use of the index values in partition data sets. The analysis of variance showed the significance of the indexes for all constituents except sulfate. The two most reliable brine indicators are chloride and bromide. Statistically, chloride is a slightly more reliable index than bromide. The developed indexes can be used to indicate water quality degradation by brine. Accuracy is improved if both indexes are used. When geophysical logs from 133 pairs of oil and gas wells were analyzed, data from 5 pairs of wells indicated a possible rise in the interface between fresh water and salt water in the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer. Therefore , any rise of the interface is local rather than regional. The criteria developed in this study indicate that brine has degraded water quality at 63 sites on streams draining the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer, at 15 water wells completed in the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer, and at 5 oil and gas wells penetrating the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer. (Author 's abstract)

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Coal resources of New Mexico
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[Interior Duplicating Section],
ii, 24 p. :fold. map, tables. ;27 cm.