Springs are important hydrologic features in Texas. A database of about 2,000 historically documented springs and available spring-flow measurements previously has been compiled and published, but water-quality data remain scattered in published sources. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, documents the compilation of data for 232 springs in Texas on the basis of a set of criteria and the development of a water-quality database for the selected springs. The selection of springs for compilation of historical water-quality data in Texas was made using existing digital and hard-copy data, responses to mailed surveys, selection criteria established by various stakeholders, geographic information systems, and digital database queries. Most springs were selected by computing the highest mean spring flows for each Texas level III ecoregion. A brief assessment of the water-quality data for springs in Texas shows that few data are available in the Arizona/New Mexico Mountains, High Plains, East Central Texas Plains, Western Gulf Coastal Plain, and South Central Plains ecoregions. Water-quality data are more abundant for the Chihuahuan Deserts, Edwards Plateau, and Texas Blackland Prairies ecoregions. Selected constituent concentrations in Texas springs, including silica, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, strontium, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, nitrate (nitrogen), dissolved solids, and hardness (as calcium carbonate) are comparatively high in the Chihuahuan Deserts, Southwestern Tablelands, Central Great Plains, and Cross Timbers ecoregions, mostly as a result of subsurface geology. Comparatively low concentrations of selected constituents in Texas springs are associated with the Arizona/New Mexico Mountains, Southern Texas Plains, East Central Texas Plains, and South Central Plains ecoregions.
Additional Publication Details
USGS Numbered Series
Compilation of Historical Water-Quality Data for Selected Springs in Texas, by Ecoregion