The flood of 1993 in the Upper Mississippi River Basin caused widespread devastation. The human and economic costs were high. The total flood and other related damage estimates were in the $10 billion to $16 billion range, with total Federal expenditures in excess of $5.4 billion. In response to the effects of the flood of 1993, the White House established the Scientific Assessment and Strategy Team (SAST) on November 24, 1993. The SAST?s goals are to provide scientific advice and assistance to policymakers and officials responsible for flood recovery and river basin management in the Upper Mississippi River Basin and to prepare a data base to support those goals.