The hydrogeology of Florida, especially in the northern part of the state, and southwestern Georgia is characterized by a predominance of limestone aquifers overlain by varying amounts of sands, silts, and clays. This karstic system of aquifers and their associated springs is particularly vulnerable to contamination from various anthropogenic activities at the land surface. Numerous sinkholes, disappearing streams, and conduit systems or dissolution pathways, often associated with large spring systems, allow rapid movement of contaminants from the land surface to the groundwater system with little or no attenuation or degradation. The fate of contaminants in the groundwater system is not fully understood, but traveltimes from sources are greatly reduced when conduits are intercepted by pumping wells and springs. Contaminant introduction to groundwater systems in Florida and Georgia is not limited to seepage from land surface, but can be associated with passive (drainage wells) and forced subsurface injection (aquifer storage and recovery, waste-water disposal).
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USGS Numbered Series
Assessment of groundwater pathways and contaminant transport in Florida and Georgia using multiple chemical and microbiological indicators