The hydrogeology of a 135-square-mile area centered at Waverly, N.Y. and Sayre, Pa. is summarized in a set of five maps and a sheet of geologic sections, all at 1:24,000 scale, that depict locations of wells and test holes (sheet 1), surficial geology (sheet 2), altitude of the water table (sheet 3), saturated thickness of the surficial aquifer (sheet 4), thickness of the lacustrine confining unit (sheet 5), and geologic sections (sheet 6). The valley-fill deposits that form the aquifer system in the Waverly-Sayre area occupy an area of approximately 30 square miles, within the valleys of the Susquehanna River, Chemung River, and Cayuta Creek.
The saturated thickness of the surficial aquifer, which consists of alluvium, valley-train outwash, and underlying ice-contact deposits, ranges from zero to 90 feet and is greatest in areas where (1) the outwash is underlain by ice-contact sand and gravel or (2) the outwash is overlain by alluvium and alluvial fans. Estimated transmissivity of the surficial aquifer ranges from 5,600 to 100,270 feet squared per day, and estimated hydraulic conductivity ranges from 50 feet per day for ice-contact deposits to 1,300 feet per day for well-sorted, valley-train outwash.
The surficial aquifer is underlain by deposits of lacustrine sand, silt, and clay in the main valleys; these deposits reach thicknesses of as much as 150 ft and form a thick confining unit. Beneath the lacustrine silt and clay confining unit is a thin, discontinuous sand and gravel aquifer whose thickness averages 5 feet but may be as much as 30 feet locally. This confined aquifer supplies many domestic well in the area; yields average about 22 gallons per minute for 6-inch-diameter, open-ended wells. Average annual recharge to the aquifer system is estimated to be approximately 52.5 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), of which 29.7 Mgal/d is from direct precipitation, 7.6 Mgal/d is from unchanneled upland runoff that infiltrates the stratified drift along the valley wall, and 15.2 Mgal/d is from infiltration from tributary streams on the valley floor.
Additional Publication Details
USGS Numbered Series
Hydrogeology of the Waverly-Sayre area in Tioga and Chemung counties, New York and Bradford County, Pennsylvania