The Jefferson Dolomite, Grand View Dolomite, and Three Forks Limestone, all of Devonian age, are the oldest rocks exposed in the quadrangle. Rocks that range from Mississippian to Permian in age are widespread; they are represented by the White Knob Limestone in the eastern part of the quadrangle and the Copper Basin Formation in the western part. The Copper Basin Formation, which is composed of non-carbonate detrital rocks, is interlayered with the White Knob Limestone near the middle of the quadrangle. This interlayering is herein interpreted to be the result of depositional interbedding, but it could be in part due to juxtaposition by faulting. The Challis Volcanics, of Tertiary age, cover much of the quadrangle, and except for a conspicuous basal conglomerate, lack distinctive subdivisions similar to those in neighboring areas. Alluvial deposits which may be in part as old as Pliocene are scattered through the quadrangle. Glaciation affected all higher parts of the quadrangle, and locally glacial deposits of at least three ages can be distinguished The latest two of these are probably of late Wisconsin Bull Lake and Pinedale ages. Basalt flows of probable Recent age extend into the southernmost part of the quadrangle and originate in part from vents there.
Intrusive rocks, including plutons and related dikes of Tertiary age, are scattered throughout the quadrangle. They range from granite to quartz diorite in composition. The intrusive rocks seem to be related to the Challis Volcanics.
The rocks of the quadrangle were strongly deformed and eroded prior to the deposition of the Challis Volcanics. No thrust faults have been recognized although such faults are plentiful in the adjacent region. Deformation has continued until recent times.
All or parts of five mining districts are included in the quadrangle, and the total production probably exceeded $10,000,000. Mining has been quiet since World War II but activity has been renewed at times in the past and possibilities for the discovery of substantial new deposits seem promising. The mineral deposits formed largely by replacement, partly in areas of contact metamorphism. The metals present are varied but copper has been the main product. All of the deposits are believed to be related to the intrusions of Tertiary age.