The distribution of kaolinite in parts of the Devonian shale section is the most significant finding of this work. These shales are composed predominately of 2M illite and illitic mixed-layer clay with minor amounts of chlorite and kaolinite. Preliminary data indicate that kaolinite, the only allogenic clay mineral, is present in successively older beds of the Ohio Shale from south to north in the southern and middle parts of the Appalachian basin. This trend in the distribution of kaolinite shows a paleocurrent direction to the southwest. Three well-known methods of preparing the clay fraction for X-ray diffraction analysis were tested and evaluated. Kaolinite was not identified in two of the methods because of layering due to differing settling rates of the clay minerals. It is suggested that if one of the two settling methods of sample preparation is used, the clay film be thin enough for the X-ray beam to penetrate the entire thickness of clay.
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USGS Numbered Series
Preliminary report on the clay mineralogy of the Upper Devonian Shales in the southern and middle Appalachian Basin