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Historical profile, Quality of Water Laboratories, U. S. Geological Survey

Open-File Report 78-432

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Abstract

During the period 1918 to 1973 the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, established 22 District-type water quality laboratories. These facilities provided the analytical capability and water-quality information for hydrologic investigations and the national baseline inventory of chemical, physical, fluvial sediment, and biological characteristics of surface and ground waters in the United States. Prior to 1950, most methods used in the laboratory were gravimetric, colorimetric, or titrimetric. Flame photometric equipment was common to most laboratories in the 1950's, and the atomic absorption spectrophotometer was added to larger laboratories in the 1960's. In the late 1960's, the first of the automatic analyzers was installed. Total annual production averaged about 480 adjusted complete analyses during the early years 1919-28, about 7,800 in 1946, and about 50,000 in 1970. Budget estimates for the majority of laboratories ranged from $25,000 to $50,000 (1940-50) and $75,000 to $300,000 (1965-73). Beginning in 1972, major functions of the 22 laboratories have been combined into two comprehensive highly-automated facilities located at Denver (Arvada), Colo., and Atlanta (Doraville), Ga. These laboratories comprise the Central Laboratory System for the U.S. Geological Survey. (Woodard-USGS)

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Historical profile, Quality of Water Laboratories, U. S. Geological Survey
Series title:
Open-File Report
Series number:
78-432
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1978
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey,
Description:
1 v., 110 p. :ill., map ;28 cm.