Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (HUNTTH00210034) on Town Highway 21, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont
Open-File Report 97-663
Prepared in cooperation with Vermont Agency of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration
- Ronda L. Burns, Michael A. Ivanoff
- Document: Document
This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00210034 on Town Highway 21 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.
The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 6.23-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest.
In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of
approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height
of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size
(D50) of 90.0 mm (0.295 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and
Level II site visit on June 26, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.
The Town Highway 21 crossing of Brush Brook is a 28-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 26-foot steel-beam span with a timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 25.4 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with a wingwall on the upstream right. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening and the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 5 degrees.
A tributary enters Brush Brook on the right bank immediately downstream of the bridge. At the confluence, the left bank of Brush Brook is eroded and there is a small void under the downstream end of the left abutment footing which is completely exposed. The right abutment footing is also exposed. The scour countermeasures at the site include type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) along the upstream banks and in front of the right abutment and type-3 stone fill (less than 48 inches diameter) along the entire base length of the upstream right wingwall and along the downstream right bank. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E.
Scour depths and recommended rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1995) for the 100- and 500-year discharges. In addition, the incipient roadway-overtopping discharge is determined and analyzed as another potential worst-case scour scenario. Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows.
Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.0 to 0.7 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the incipient roadway-overtopping discharge, which was less than the 100-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 6.9 to 10.9 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution.
It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.
Additional Publication Details
- Publication type:
- Publication Subtype:
- USGS Numbered Series
- Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (HUNTTH00210034) on Town Highway 21, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont
- Series title:
- Open-File Report
- Series number:
- Year Published:
- U.S. Geological Survey
- Publisher location:
- Pembroke, NH
- iv, 53 p.
- Number of Pages:
- United States
- Other Geospatial:
- Brush Brook